martes, 12 de junio de 2007

Lectura Compartida

ESTRATEGIAS DE ENSEÑANZA DEL PROGRAMA AILEM-UC
Paz Baeza B, Mª Cristina Solís y Tonia Razmilic

La lectura compartida es una estrategia donde participan profesores y alumnos con el fin de:
• Desarrollar estrategias tempranas de lectura.
• Desarrollar estrategias de comprensión de lectura.
• Fomentar el trabajo cooperativo.
• Introducir un concepto, contenido o desarrollar una habilidad.
• Desarrollar lenguaje oral. p
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Origen de la lectura compartida
Surge en Nueva Zelandia, donde Don Hodway y un equipo de educadores querían crear un programa que pudiera evitar el fracaso en la lectura y descubrieron que a los niños que se les lee antes de ir al colegio, tienden a tener más éxito que los no han tenido esa experiencia. Por eso crearon una versión de la Lectura Nocturna para la sala de clases y la llamó Lectura Compartida.
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¿Por qué la lectura compartida?
Muchas investigaciones han demostrado que la Lectura Compartida es una estrategia muy efectiva, algunos de sus beneficios son: aumenta la comprensión lectora, el vocabulario, ayuda a entender y recordar más conceptos, las lecturas repetidas ayudan a tener más confianza y es una actividad en la que los niños quieren participar, aumenta su motivación para leer y proveen de un modelo y de práctica para la fluidez. entre muchos otros.
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La experiencia ha demostrado que:
·Los niños disfrutan leyendo juntos - Leen con mayor sentimiento y vitalidad
·Sienten que sus errores pasan inadvertidos
·Son arrastrados a la lectura por el entusiasmo del grupo
·Los niños sienten placer y facilidad al leer el texto después de forma independiente.
·Cada niño aprende algo a su propio nivel.
·Se aprenden cosas diferentes con cada lectura que se realice.
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La lectura Compartida tiene tres pasos:
1. Presentación del texto
- Reúna a todos los niños cerca del texto, de manera que todos vean.
- Si es un libro, muestre a los niños título, la portada, autor, etc. y discutan. Invítelos a predecir sobre qué pueda tratarse el libro, acerca de la trama de la historia, los personajes, etc.Si es otro tipo de texto, procure que estén escritos con letras de tamaño apropiado para que todos los niños lo vean. Invite a los niños a interrogar el texto, observando su silueta lo que les permitirá establecer conexiones con otros textos semejantes, predecir de qué podrá tratarse, observar las pistas que nos ofrece la estructura del mismo, etc.
- Lea el texto en conjunto con los niños, guiándose con un puntero y proporcionando el énfasis necesario y realizando las pausas correspondientes.
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2. Relectura del texto.
Se lee el texto en conjunto con los alumnos, es importante que el niño se sienta libre de no participar verbalmente si así lo prefiere, de poco sentirá confianza y participará.
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Durante ésta y las múltiples relecturas se intenta lograr:
· Incrementar la participación del grupo,
· Enseñar estrategias de lectura.
· Recordar vocabulario, ideas principales o información del texto
· Apreciar el estilo y punto de vista del autor
· Reglas de ortografía, puntuación y presentación
· Trabajar diferentes focos de enseñanza
· Identificar tipos de textos, reconociendo sus características.
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3. Lectura Independiente
Muchos niños querrán volver a leer las historias que han disfrutado en Lectura Compartida. Se sugiere tener u colgador de lecturas compartidas.
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Algunos focos de enseñanza de la lectura:
· Lectores iniciales:
el Alfabeto, conocimiento de lo impreso, C. fonológica y fonética.
· Lectores avanzados: reglas del lenguaje escrito, habilidades de la lectura.
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A través de una lectura compartida se puede enseñar:
· Estrategias de lectura · Predicciones · Autocorrecciones · Habilidades para trabajar con palabras · Reglas de puntuación de ortografía y de gramática · Convenciones de direccionalidad · Organización y presentación.
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Se pueden leer:
todo tipo de textos auténticos para realizar la lectura, además se recomienda utilizar cartulinas para escribir diversos textos con letra clara y grande, de modo que todos los niños lo vean. También las escrituras interactivas que los niños han realizado.
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Materiales que complementan la lectura compartida
·Punteros de diversos tamaños y formas.
·Post-it notes, para tapar palabras
·Matamoscas, para cazar palabras
·Tarjetas, tiras de plasticina, cinta, para enmarcar, resaltar o cubrir palabras.
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Preparación de la lectura, el profesor debe:

1- Decidir sobre el foco y 2-Seleccionar un texto apropiado
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Antes de la lectura:
·Recordar las normas de conducta que deben en una lectura compartida.
·Guiar las predicciones a partir del título, de una palabra clave, etc.
·Formular preguntas para activar los conocimientos previos de los alumnos con el fin de que establezcan conexiones.
·Guiar la comprensión tomando en consideración la estructura del texto.
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Durante la lectura
·Relee el texto junto con los alumnos con el fin de brindarles oportunidad a los niños para participar en la lectura.
·Formula preguntas con el fin de fomentar la discusión acerca del texto.
·Destaca algunas palabras con el fin de desarrollar destrezas.
·Detente y formula preguntas para evaluar la comprensión del texto.
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Después de la lectura
·Haga comentarios sobre la intención o mensaje del autor y discuta la relación del texto con la vida real de los niños.
·Asegúrese de dejar a la vista en la sala de clases los textos que ya se han ocupado como lectura compartida, con el fin de que se puedan releer muchas veces
·Planee otras actividades a partir de la lectura compartida por Ej. lectura independiente, escritura compartida o escritura independiente, etc.
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“Esta estrategia brinda la oportunidad de que todos los alumnos participen y aprendan exitosamente en la lectura”

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